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Sampling Resources

Training and Evaluation

FDA OTED Course Catalog. Includes both online and classroom course listings.

International Food Protection Training Institute (IFPTI)  – classroom and online courses offered.

Sampling Policies and Procedures 

FDA Investigations Operation Manual (IOM)-Chapter 4 Sampling
4.3 Collection Technique
4.4 Documentation & CR
4.5 Sampling:  Preparation, Handling, Shipping

FDA IOM Chapter 8: Investigations

Laboratory Support and Resources

AAFCO Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidelines for Feed Laboratories, 2014

ALACC Criteria: AOAC International Guidelines for Laboratories Performing Microbiological and Chemical Analyses of Food, Dietary Supplements, and Pharmaceuticals: An Aid to Interpretation of ISO/IEC 17025:2017, 2018

AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, 21st Edition, 2019

APHL Best Practices for Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories, 2017

Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods [(American Public Health Association (APHA)] - Chapter 2 of the 5th edition contains guidelines for sampling foods for microbiological analysis. It also contains guidelines for developing sampling plans.

FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs, Office of Regulatory Science - Field Science and Laboratories

FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM): Chapter 1: Food Sampling/Preparation of Sample Homogenate

FSIS Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook

FDA ORA Laboratory Manual should be

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6498:2012, Animal feeding stuffs-Guidelines for sample preparation.

Partnership for Food Protection Laboratory Science Workgroup Human and Animal Food Testing Laboratories Best Practices Manual, 2018

Program Assessment

2019 Manufactured Food Regulatory Program Standards Standard 3 (Inspection), Standard 8 (equipment), 10 (Laboratory Support)

2019 Voluntary Retail Food Regulatory Program Standards – Standard 3– Inspection Program, Standard 8 – Program Support and Resources

Program Resources - IT

NFSDX is is a Partnership for Food Protection (PFP) initiative that contributes to the development of the Integrated Food Safety System by enabling electronic sharing of food safety information and data between the FDA, public health agencies and various regulatory partners. The Office of Regulatory Affairs Partners Portal (ORAPP) coupled with NFSDX and other FDA systems provides partners with a web-based platform that supports bi-directional information exchange. NFSDX currently enables collaborators to electronically submit contracted inspection information to FDA, search FDA firm information and conduct State-to-State Firm searches. PFP is working to expand NFSDX capabilities to share laboratory data between state laboratories and FDA.

FoodNET provides a foundation for food safety policy and prevention efforts. It estimates the number of foodborne illnesses, monitors trends in incidence of specific foodborne illnesses over time, attributes illnesses to specific foods and settings, and disseminates this information.

PulseNET is a national laboratory network that connects foodborne illness cases to detect outbreaks. PulseNet uses DNA fingerprinting of bacteria making people sick, to detect thousands of local and multistate outbreaks.

FoodSHIELD provides a secure, web-based platform for regulatory agencies to communicate and share investigation protocols, information and data.

Resources about States and Locals

Florida-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

AOAC International, JAOAC: Hanson P, Mitchell N, Caudle SB, Caulking L, Owens C, Lewandowski P, Pickett D. A study to evaluate the need for comminution in the preparation of food materials for testing of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus species and generic Escherichia coli

Michigan - GOODSamples Pilot 2017 

Minnesota-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

Oregon-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

Additional Sampling Resources

AAFCO.  (2008)  Guidelines for Preparing Laboratory Samples (log in required)

AOAC International, JAOAC Special Issue on Sampling  AAFCO Requirements for Sampling - Feed Inspector’s Manual, 5th 6th Edition, 2017

AAFCO Requirements for Sampling - Feed Inspector’s Manual, 5th 6th Edition, 2017

RRT Manual 

A Performance-Based Approach to the Use of Swipe Samples in Response to a Radiological or Nuclear Incident, EPA 600/R-11/122, October 2011

A Systematic Approach to Representative Sampling—Sampling Quality Criteria, Material Properties, Theory of Sampling
pp. 264-264(1) Authors: Wagner C, Ramsey CA.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

CODEX – General Guidelines on Sampling – CAC/GL 50-20004 (FAO/WHO, 2004)

Cook JM and Ambrus A. (2017) Chapter 9: Theory and Practice of Sampling for Pesticide Residue Analysis. Food Safety Assessment of Pesticide Residues. pp 327-403.

Environmental Protection Agency Sample collection Procedures for Radiochemical Analytes in Environmental Matrices , Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center, U.S. EPA, July 2012, EPA/600/R-12/566

Esbensen K.H., Wagner, C.  (2014)  Theory of sampling (TOS) versus measurement uncertainty (MU) – A call for integration.  Trends Anal Chem  57:93-106.

Food and Drug Administration
FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs Laboratory Manual Vol. III – Section 2 Chain of Custody – Sample Handling,

FDA Manual of Compliance Policy Guides

FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Food Sampling/Preparation of Sample Homogenate. Chapter 1.

FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual (CPGM)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, General Sampling Consideration

FAO, Methods of Sampling and Analysis, Section 5

Fussell, R. J., Hetmanski, M. T., MacArthur, R., Findlay, D., Smith, F., Ambrus, A., & Brodesser, P. J. (2007a). Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Sample Processing of Oranges and Tomatoes for Pesticide Residue Analysis J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 1062–1070.

Fussell, R. J., Addie, K. J., Reynolds, S. L., & Wilson, M. F. (2002). Assessment of the Stability of Pesticides During Cryogenic Sample Processing. 1. Apples.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 441–448.

Fussell, R. J., Hetmanski, M. T., Colyer, A., Caldow, M., Smith, F., & Findlay, D. (2007b). Assessment of the Stability of Pesticides During the Cryogenic Processing of Fruits and Vegetables.  Food Addit. Contam. 24, 1247–1256

GOODSamples: Guidance on Obtaining Defensible Samples

GOOD TEST Portions

Gy, P.  Sampling and Analytical Process (1998)

International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMFS) - 
Book 7 Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management, 2018 Microorganisms in Foods 8:  Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance, 2011

Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications  (no charge)

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 6498. (2012). Animal feeding stuffs—Guidelines for sample preparation. Geneva, Switzerland.

JAOAC Articles

Considerations for Inference to Decision Units
pp. 288-294
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Considerations for Sampling Contaminants in Agricultural Soils
pp. 309-315
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Considerations in Sampling of Water
pp. 316-320
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Critical Practicalities in Sampling for Mycotoxins in Feed
pp. 301-308
Author: Wagner, Claas

Distributional Assumptions in Food and Feed Commodities—Development of Fit-For-Purpose Sampling Protocols
pp. 295-300
Authors: Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H.

Food and Feed Safety Assessment: The Importance of Proper Sampling
pp. 252-258
Authors: Kuiper, Harry A.; Paoletti, Claudia

Materials Properties: Heterogeneity and Appropriate Sampling Modes
pp. 269-274
Author: Esbensen, Kim H.

QC of Sampling Processes—A First Overview: From Field to Test Portion
pp. 282-287
Authors: Esbensen, Kim H.; Ramsey, Charles A.

Representative Sampling for Food and Feed Materials: A Critical Need for Food/Feed Safety
pp. 249-251
Authors: Esbensen, Kim H.; Paoletti, Claudia; Thiex, Nancy

Sample Quality Criteria
pp. 265-268
Authors: Ramsey, Charles A.; Wagner, Claas

Theory of Sampling: Four Critical Success Factors Before Analysis
pp. 275-281
Authors: Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim H.

Towards a Unified Sampling Terminology: Clarifying Misperceptions 
pp. 259-263
Authors: Thiex, Nancy; Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H.

Leah S Riter, Chad E Wujcik, (2018)  Novel Two-Stage Fine Milling Enables High-Thoughput Determination of Glyposate Residues in Raw Agricultural Commodities. JAOAC 101

Lehotay, SJ, Cook, JM.  Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.  (2015) Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 13;63(18):4395-404.  

Maestroni, B., Ghods, A., El-Bidaoui, M., Rathor, N., Jarju, O. P., Ton, T., & Ambrus, A. (2000). Testing the Efficiency and Uncertainty of Sample Processing Using 14C-Labelled Chlorpyrifol: Part I and Part II. Pages 49–72 in Principles and Practices of Method Validation; Fajgelj, A., Ambrus, Ä., eds. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

NELAC Requirements for Sampling - Field Sampling and Measurement Organization Sector Volume 1 and General Requirements for Field Sampling and Measurement Organizations, May 1. 2007 

NELAC Requirements for Sampling - Field Sampling and Measurement Organization Sector Volume 1 and General Requirements for Field Sampling and Measurement Organizations, May 1. 2007

Partnership for Food Protection (PFP) resources

Peterson, L., Dahl, CK., & Esbensen, KH. (2004). Representative mass reduction in sampling—A critical survey of techniques and hardware. Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 74, 95–114.

Pitard, FF.  Theory of Sampling and Sampling Practice, Third Edition. (2019)

Ramsey, Charles A. (2015) The Decision Unit-A Lot with Objectives.  TOS Forum:

Ramsey, Charles A. (2015) The Decision Unit-A Lot with Objectives.  TOS Forum 5

Ramsey, Charles A.  (2015)  The Role of Inference in Food Safety.  TOS Forum

Ramsey, Charles and Thiex, Nancy.  (2014)  Improved Food and Feed Safety through Systematic Planning and the Theory of Sampling (TOS):  An Introduction to

 “GOODSamples”.  TOS Forum

Sud Sushant, Kamath Archana. (2013)  Methods of Size Reduction and Factors Affecting Size Reduction in Pharmaceutics. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013 4(8): 57-64.

TOS Forum

TOS Forum is a free publication for the sampling community, providing a communications platform for all interested in the theory and practice of representative sampling and blending.

USDA AMS Pesticide Data Program Procedures

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