Training and Evaluation
FDA OTED Course Catalog. Includes both online and classroom course listings.
Sampling Policies and Procedures
FDA Investigations Operation Manual (IOM)-Chapter 4 Sampling
ALACC Criteria: AOAC International Guidelines for Laboratories Performing Microbiological and Chemical Analyses of Food, Dietary Supplements, and Pharmaceuticals: An Aid to Interpretation of ISO/IEC 17025:2017, 2018
Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods [(American Public Health Association (APHA)] - Chapter 2 of the 5th edition contains guidelines for sampling foods for microbiological analysis. It also contains guidelines for developing sampling plans.FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM): Chapter 1: Food Sampling/Preparation of Sample Homogenate
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6498:2012, Animal feeding stuffs-Guidelines for sample preparation.
2019 Manufactured Food Regulatory Program Standards Standard 3 (Inspection), Standard 8 (equipment), 10 (Laboratory Support)
2019 Voluntary Retail Food Regulatory Program Standards – Standard 3– Inspection Program, Standard 8 – Program Support and Resources
Program Resources - IT
NFSDX is is a Partnership for Food Protection (PFP) initiative that contributes to the development of the Integrated Food Safety System by enabling electronic sharing of food safety information and data between the FDA, public health agencies and various regulatory partners. The Office of Regulatory Affairs Partners Portal (ORAPP) coupled with NFSDX and other FDA systems provides partners with a web-based platform that supports bi-directional information exchange. NFSDX currently enables collaborators to electronically submit contracted inspection information to FDA, search FDA firm information and conduct State-to-State Firm searches. PFP is working to expand NFSDX capabilities to share laboratory data between state laboratories and FDA.
FoodNET provides a foundation for food safety policy and prevention efforts. It estimates the number of foodborne illnesses, monitors trends in incidence of specific foodborne illnesses over time, attributes illnesses to specific foods and settings, and disseminates this information.
PulseNET is a national laboratory network that connects foodborne illness cases to detect outbreaks. PulseNet uses DNA fingerprinting of bacteria making people sick, to detect thousands of local and multistate outbreaks.
FoodSHIELD provides a secure, web-based platform for regulatory agencies to communicate and share investigation protocols, information and data.
Resources about States and Locals
AOAC International, JAOAC: Hanson P, Mitchell N, Caudle SB, Caulking L, Owens C, Lewandowski P, Pickett D. A study to evaluate the need for comminution in the preparation of food materials for testing of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus species and generic Escherichia coli
Additional Sampling Resources
AAFCO. (2008) Guidelines for Preparing Laboratory Samples (log in required)
A Performance-Based Approach to the Use of Swipe Samples in Response to a Radiological or Nuclear Incident, EPA 600/R-11/122, October 2011
A Systematic Approach to Representative Sampling—Sampling Quality Criteria, Material Properties, Theory of Sampling
CODEX – General Guidelines on Sampling – CAC/GL 50-20004 (FAO/WHO, 2004)
Environmental Protection Agency Sample collection Procedures for Radiochemical Analytes in Environmental Matrices , Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center, U.S. EPA, July 2012, EPA/600/R-12/566
Esbensen K.H., Wagner, C. (2014) Theory of sampling (TOS) versus measurement uncertainty (MU) – A call for integration. Trends Anal Chem 57:93-106. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165993614000399?via%3Dihub
Food and Drug Administration
FAO, Methods of Sampling and Analysis, Section 5 http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1379e/i1379e05.pdf
Fussell, R. J., Hetmanski, M. T., MacArthur, R., Findlay, D., Smith, F., Ambrus, A., & Brodesser, P. J. (2007a). Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Sample Processing of Oranges and Tomatoes for Pesticide Residue Analysis . J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 1062–1070.
Fussell, R. J., Addie, K. J., Reynolds, S. L., & Wilson, M. F. (2002). Assessment of the Stability of Pesticides During Cryogenic Sample Processing. 1. Apples. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 441–448.
Fussell, R. J., Hetmanski, M. T., Colyer, A., Caldow, M., Smith, F., & Findlay, D. (2007b). Assessment of the Stability of Pesticides During the Cryogenic Processing of Fruits and Vegetables. Food Addit. Contam. 24, 1247–1256
GOOD TEST Portions https://www.aafco.org/Publications/GOODTestPortions
International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMFS) -
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 6498. (2012). Animal feeding stuffs—Guidelines for sample preparation. Geneva, Switzerland.
Considerations for Inference to Decision Units
Considerations for Sampling Contaminants in Agricultural Soils
Considerations in Sampling of Water
Critical Practicalities in Sampling for Mycotoxins in Feed
Distributional Assumptions in Food and Feed Commodities—Development of Fit-For-Purpose Sampling Protocols
Materials Properties: Heterogeneity and Appropriate Sampling Modes
QC of Sampling Processes—A First Overview: From Field to Test Portion
Representative Sampling for Food and Feed Materials: A Critical Need for Food/Feed Safety
Sample Quality Criteria
Theory of Sampling: Four Critical Success Factors Before Analysis
Authors: Thiex, Nancy; Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H.
Maestroni, B., Ghods, A., El-Bidaoui, M., Rathor, N., Jarju, O. P., Ton, T., & Ambrus, A. (2000). Testing the Efficiency and Uncertainty of Sample Processing Using 14C-Labelled Chlorpyrifol: Part I and Part II. Pages 49–72 in Principles and Practices of Method Validation; Fajgelj, A., Ambrus, Ä., eds. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom.NELAC Requirements for Sampling - Field Sampling and Measurement Organization Sector Volume 1 and General Requirements for Field Sampling and Measurement Organizations, May 1. 2007
NELAC Requirements for Sampling - Field Sampling and Measurement Organization Sector Volume 1 and General Requirements for Field Sampling and Measurement Organizations, May 1. 2007
Peterson, L., Dahl, CK., & Esbensen, KH. (2004). Representative mass reduction in sampling—A critical survey of techniques and hardware. Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 74, 95–114.
Ramsey, Charles A. (2015) The Decision Unit-A Lot with Objectives. TOS Forum: https://www.impopen.com/subs/tosf/v15/S05_0031.pdf
Ramsey, Charles A. (2015) The Decision Unit-A Lot with Objectives. TOS Forum 5. https://www.impopen.com/subs/tosf/v15/S05_0031.pdf
Ramsey, Charles A. (2015) The Role of Inference in Food Safety. TOS Forumhttps://www.impopen.com/subs/tosf/v15/S05_0063.pdf
Ramsey, Charles and Thiex, Nancy. (2014) Improved Food and Feed Safety through Systematic Planning and the Theory of Sampling (TOS): An Introduction to
“GOODSamples”. TOS Forum https://www.impopen.com/subs/tosf/v14/S02_0008.pdf
TOS Forum. https://www.impopen.com/tosf
TOS Forum is a free publication for the sampling community, providing a communications platform for all interested in the theory and practice of representative sampling and blending.