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Sampling Resources


Training and Evaluation

FDA OTED Course Catalog. Includes both online and classroom course listings.

FDA ORA On-line University (ORA U)

International Food Protection Training Institute (IFPTI) – classroom and online courses offered.

Manufactured Food Curriculum Framework 

Sampling Policies and Procedures 

FDA Investigations Operation Manual (IOM)-Chapter 4 Sampling
4.3 Collection Technique
4.4 Documentation & CR
4.5 Sampling:  Preparation, Handling, Shipping

FDA IOM Chapter 8: Investigations

Laboratory Support and Resources

AAFCO Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidelines for Feed Laboratories, 2014

ALACC Criteria: AOAC International Guidelines for Laboratories Performing Microbiological and Chemical Analyses of Food, Dietary Supplements, and Pharmaceuticals, 2015,

AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, 20th Edition, 2016

APHL Best Practices for Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories, 2017

Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods [(American Public Health Association (APHA)] - Chapter 2 of the 5th edition contains guidelines for sampling foods for microbiological analysis. It also contains guidelines for developing sampling plans.

FDA Office of Regulatory Science  - Field Science and Laboratories
FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)
FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook
Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook
ORA LABORATORY MANUAL

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

Partnership for Food Protection Food/Feed Testing Laboratories Best Practices Manual (Draft), 2013

Program Assessment

2016 Manufactured Food Regulatory Program Standards Standard 3 (Inspection), Standard 8 (equipment), 10 (Laboratory Support)

2017 Voluntary Retail Food Regulatory Program Standards – Standard 3– Inspection Program, Standard 8 – Program Support and Resources

Program Resources - IT

Electronic Laboratory Exchange Network (eLEXNET) is an integrated, secure network that allows multiple government agencies engaged in food safety activities to compare, communicate, and coordinate findings of laboratory analyses. Real-time access to food sample and laboratory analysis data.

FoodNET provides a foundation for food safety policy and prevention efforts. It estimates the number of foodborne illnesses, monitors trends in incidence of specific foodborne illnesses over time, attributes illnesses to specific foods and settings, and disseminates this information.

PulseNET keeps a cumulative database representing nearly half a million isolates of bacteria from food, the environment, and human foodborne illness.

FoodSHIELD provides a secure, web-based platform for regulatory agencies to communicate and share investigation protocols, information and data.

Resources about States and Locals

Florida-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

Michigan - GOODSamples Pilot 2017 

Minnesota-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

Oregon-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

Additional Sampling Resources

AAFCO.  (2008)  Guidelines for Preparing Laboratory Samples

AOAC International, JAOAC Special Issue on Sampling 

AAFCO Requirements for Sampling - Feed Inspector’s Manual, 5th 6th Edition, 2017

RRT Manual 

A Performance-Based Approach to the Use of Swipe Samples in Response to a Radiological or Nuclear Incident, EPA 600/R-11/122, October 2011

A Systematic Approach to Representative Sampling—Sampling Quality Criteria, Material Properties, Theory of Sampling
pp. 264-264(1)
Authors: Wagner, Claas; Ramsey, Charles A.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

CODEX – General Guidelines on Sampling – CAC/GL 50-20004 (FAO/WHO, 2004)

Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods [(American Public Health Association (APHA)] - Chapter 2 of the 5th edition contains guidelines for sampling foods for microbiological analysis. It also contains guidelines for developing sampling plans.

Environmental Protection Agency
Sample collection Procedures for Radiochemical Analytes in Environmental Matrices, Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center, U.S. EPA, July 2012, EPA/600/R-12/566

Esbensen K.H., Wagner, C.  (2014)  Theory of sampling (TOS) versus measurement uncertainty (MU) – A call for integration.  Trends Anal Chem  57:93-106.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165993614000399?via%3Dihub

Food and Drug Administration
FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs Laboratory Manual Vol. 3 – Section 2 Chain of Custody – Sample Handling,

FDA Manual of Compliance Policy Guides

FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Food Sampling/Preparation of Sample Homogenate. Chapter 1.

FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual (CPGM)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Sampling

FAO, Methods of Sampling and Analysis, Section 5  http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1379e/i1379e05.pdf

Fussell, R. J., Hetmanski, M. T., MacArthur, R., Findlay, D., Smith, F., Ambrus, A., & Brodesser, P. J. (2007a). Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Sample Processing of Oranges and Tomatoes for Pesticide Residue Analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 1062–1070.

Fussell, R. J., Addie, K. J., Reynolds, S. L., & Wilson, M. F. (2002). Assessment of the Stability of Pesticides During Cryogenic Sample Processing. 1. Apples. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 441–448.

Fussell, R. J., Hetmanski, M. T., Colyer, A., Caldow, M., Smith, F., & Findlay, D. (2007b). Assessment of the Stability of Pesticides During the Cryogenic Processing of Fruits and Vegetables. Food Addit. Contam. 24, 1247–1256

GOODSamples: Guidance on Obtaining Defensible Samples

GOOD TEST Portions  https://www.aafco.org/Publications/GOODTestPortions

Gy, P.  Sampling and Analytical Process (1998)

International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMFS) - 
Book 7 Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management, 2018 Microorganisms in Foods 8:  Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance, 2011
Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications  (no charge)

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 6498. (2012). Animal feeding stuffs—Guidelines for sample preparation. Geneva, Switzerland.

JAOAC Articles

Considerations for Inference to Decision Units
pp. 288-294(7)
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Considerations for Sampling Contaminants in Agricultural Soils
pp. 309-315(7)
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Considerations in Sampling of Water
pp. 316-320(5)
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Critical Practicalities in Sampling for Mycotoxins in Feed
pp. 301-308(8)
Author: Wagner, Claas

Distributional Assumptions in Food and Feed Commodities—Development of Fit-For-Purpose Sampling Protocols
pp. 295-300(6)
Authors: Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H.

Food and Feed Safety Assessment: The Importance of Proper Sampling
pp. 252-258(7)
Authors: Kuiper, Harry A.; Paoletti, Claudia

Materials Properties: Heterogeneity and Appropriate Sampling Modes
pp. 269-274(6)
Author: Esbensen, Kim H.

QC of Sampling Processes—A First Overview: From Field to Test Portion
pp. 282-287(6)
Authors: Esbensen, Kim H.; Ramsey, Charles A.

Representative Sampling for Food and Feed Materials: A Critical Need for Food/Feed Safety
pp. 249-251(3)
Authors: Esbensen, Kim H.; Paoletti, Claudia; Thiex, Nancy

Sample Quality Criteria
pp. 265-268(4)
Authors: Ramsey, Charles A.; Wagner, Claas

Theory of Sampling: Four Critical Success Factors Before Analysis
pp. 275-281(7)
Authors: Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim H.

Towards a Unified Sampling Terminology: Clarifying Misperceptions 
pp. 259-263(5)
Authors: Thiex, Nancy; Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H.

Leah S Riter, Chad E Wujcik, (2018)  Novel Two-Stage Fine Milling Enables High-Thoughput Determination of Glyposate Residues in Raw Agricultural Commodities. JAOAC 101(3) 

Lehotay, SJ, Cook, JM.  Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.  (2015) Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 13;63(18):4395-404.  

Maestroni, B., Ghods, A., El-Bidaoui, M., Rathor, N., Jarju, O. P., Ton, T., & Ambrus, A. (2000). Testing the Efficiency and Uncertainty of Sample Processing Using 14C-Labelled Chlorpyrifol: Part I and Part II. Pages 49–72 in Principles and Practices of Method Validation; Fajgelj, A., Ambrus, Ä., eds. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

NELAC Requirements for Sampling - Field Sampling and Measurement Organization Sector Volume 1 and General Requirements for Field Sampling and Measurement Organizations, May 1. 2007


 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320266627_Novel_Two-Stage_Fine_Milling_Enables_High-Throughput_Determination_of_Glyphosate_Residues_in_Raw_Agricultural_Commodities



Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry.  Lehotay SJ, Cook JM.  Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.  2015 May 13;63(18):4395-404.  

Materials Properties: Heterogeneity and Appropriate Sampling Modes
pp. 269-274(6)
Author: Esbensen, Kim H.

NELAC Requirements for Sampling - Field Sampling and Measurement Organization Sector Volume 1 and General Requirements for Field Sampling and Measurement Organizations, May 1. 2007

Partnership for Food Protection (PFP) resources

Peterson, L., Dahl, CK., & Esbensen, KH. (2004). Representative mass reduction in sampling—A critical survey of techniques and hardware. Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 74, 95–114.

Pitard, FF.  Pierre Gy's Sampling Theory and Sampling Practice, Second Edition: Heterogeneity, Sampling Correctness, and Statistical Process Control (1993)  

Ramsey, Charles A. (2015) The Decision Unit-A Lot with Objectives.  TOS Forum 5.  https://www.impopen.com/subs/tosf/v15/S05_0031.pdf

Ramsey, Charles A. (2015) The Decision Unit-A Lot with Objectives.  TOS Forum 5https://www.impopen.com/subs/tosf/v15/S05_0031.pdf

Ramsey, Charles A.  (2015)  The Role of Inference in Food Safety.  TOS Forum 5https://www.impopen.com/subs/tosf/v15/S05_0063.pdf

Ramsey, Charles and Thiex, Nancy.  (2014)  Improved Food and Feed Safety through Systematic Planning and the Theory of Sampling (TOS):  An Introduction to

 “GOODSamples”.  TOS Forum 2https://www.impopen.com/subs/tosf/v14/S02_0008.pdf

Sud Sushant, Kamath Archana. (2013)  Methods of Size Reduction and Factors Affecting Size Reduction in Pharmaceutics. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013 4(8): 57-64.

TOS Forumhttps://www.impopen.com/tosf

TOS Forum is a free publication for the sampling community, providing a communications platform for all interested in the theory and practice of representative sampling and blending.

USDA Pesticide Data Program Procedures


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