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Sampling Resources

Training and Evaluation

FDA OTED Course Catalog. Includes both online and classroom course listings.

FDA ORA On-line University (ORA U)

International Food Protection Training Institute (IFPTI) – classroom and online courses offered.

Suggested Basic Course Curriculum for Manufactured Food Regulatory Program Standards

Sampling Policies and Procedures 

FDA Investigations Operation Manual (IOM)-Chapter 4 Sampling
4.3 Collection Technique
4.4 Documentation & CR
4.5 Sampling:  Preparation, Handling, Shipping

FDA IOM Chapter 8: Investigations

Laboratory Support and Resources

AAFCO Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidelines for Feed Laboratories, 2014

ALACC Criteria: AOAC International Guidelines for Laboratories Performing Microbiological and Chemical Analyses of Food, Dietary Supplements, and Pharmaceuticals, 2015,

AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, 20th Edition, 2015

APHL Best Practices for Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories, 2017

Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods [(American Public Health Association (APHA)] - Chapter 2 of the 5th edition contains guidelines for sampling foods for microbiological analysis. It also contains guidelines for developing sampling plans.

FDA Office of Regulatory Science  - Field Science and Laboratories

FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)

FDA ORA Laboratory Manual Volume 3, Section 2-Chain of custody-Sample Handling

FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

Partnership for Food Protection Food/Feed Testing Laboratories Best Practices Manual (Draft), 2013

Program Assessment

2016 Manufactured Food Regulatory Program Standards Standard 3 (Inspection), Standard 8 (equipment), 10 (Laboratory Support)

2015 Voluntary Retail Food Regulatory Program Standards – Standard 3– Inspection Program, Standard 8 – Program Support and Resources

Program Resources - IT

Electronic Laboratory Exchange Network (eLEXNET) is an integrated, secure network that allows multiple government agencies engaged in food safety activities to compare, communicate, and coordinate findings of laboratory analyses. Real-time access to food sample and laboratory analysis data.

FoodNET provides a foundation for food safety policy and prevention efforts. It estimates the number of foodborne illnesses, monitors trends in incidence of specific foodborne illnesses over time, attributes illnesses to specific foods and settings, and disseminates this information.

PulseNET keeps a cumulative database representing nearly half a million isolates of bacteria from food, the environment, and human foodborne illness.

FoodSHIELD provides a secure, web-based platform for regulatory agencies to communicate and share investigation protocols, information and data.

Resources about States and Locals

Florida-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

Michigan - GOODSamples Pilot 2017 

Minnesota-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

Oregon-GOODSamples Pilot 2016

Additional Sampling Resources

AAFCO.  (2008)  Guidelines for Preparing Laboratory Samples

AOAC International, JAOAC Special Issue on Sampling 

AAFCO Requirements for Sampling - Feed Inspector’s Manual, 5th 6th Edition, 2017

AOAC International, JAOAC Special Issue on Sampling

RRT Manual 

March/April 2015

A Performance-Based Approach to the Use of Swipe Samples in Response to a Radiological or Nuclear Incident, EPA 600/R-11/122, October 2011

A Systematic Approach to Representative Sampling—Sampling Quality Criteria, Material Properties, Theory of Sampling
pp. 264-264(1)
Authors: Wagner, Claas; Ramsey, Charles A.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

CODEX – General Guidelines on Sampling – CAC/GL 50-20004 (FAO/WHO, 2004)

Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods [(American Public Health Association (APHA)] - Chapter 2 of the 5th edition contains guidelines for sampling foods for microbiological analysis. It also contains guidelines for developing sampling plans.

Considerations for Inference to Decision Units
pp. 288-294(7)
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Considerations for Sampling Contaminants in Agricultural Soils
pp. 309-315(7)
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Considerations in Sampling of Water
pp. 316-320(5)
Author: Ramsey, Charles A.

Critical Practicalities in Sampling for Mycotoxins in Feed
pp. 301-308(8)
Author: Wagner, Claas

Distributional Assumptions in Food and Feed Commodities—Development of Fit-For-Purpose Sampling Protocols
pp. 295-300(6)
Authors: Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H.

Environmental Protection Agency
Sample collection Procedures for Radiochemical Analytes in Environmental Matrices, Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center, U.S. EPA, July 2012, EPA/600/R-12/566

Esbensen K.H., Wagner, C.  (2014)  Theory of sampling (TOS) versus measurement uncertainty (MU) – A call for integration.  Trends Anal Chem  57:93-106.

Food and Drug Administration
FDA Office of Regulatory Affairs Laboratory Manual Vol. 3 – Section 2 Chain of Custody – Sample Handling,

FDA Manual of Compliance Policy Guides

FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Food Sampling/Preparation of Sample Homogenate. Chapter 1.

FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual (CPGM)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Sampling

Food and Feed Safety Assessment: The Importance of Proper Sampling
pp. 252-258(7)
Authors: Kuiper, Harry A.; Paoletti, Claudia

GOODSamples: Guidance on Obtaining Defensible Samples

Gy, P.  Sampling and Analytical Process (1998)

International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMFS) - 
Book 7 Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management, 2002 Book 8 Microorganisms in Foods 8:  Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance, 2011
Book 2 Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications  (no charge)

Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry.  Lehotay SJ, Cook JM.  Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.  2015 May 13;63(18):4395-404.  

Materials Properties: Heterogeneity and Appropriate Sampling Modes
pp. 269-274(6)
Author: Esbensen, Kim H.

NELAC Requirements for Sampling - Field Sampling and Measurement Organization Sector Volume 1 and General Requirements for Field Sampling and Measurement Organizations, May 1. 2007

Partnership for Food Protection (PFP) resources

Pitard, FF.  Pierre Gy's Sampling Theory and Sampling Practice, Second Edition: Heterogeneity, Sampling Correctness, and Statistical Process Control (1993)  

QC of Sampling Processes—A First Overview: From Field to Test Portion
pp. 282-287(6)
Authors: Esbensen, Kim H.; Ramsey, Charles A.

Ramsey, Charles A. (2015) The Decision Unit-A Lot with Objectives.  TOS Forum 5

Ramsey, Charles A.  (2015)  The Role of Inference in Food Safety.  TOS Forum 5

Ramsey, Charles and Thiex, Nancy.  (2014)  Improved Food and Feed Safety through Systematic Planning and the Theory of Sampling (TOS):  An Introduction to “GOODSamples”.  TOS Forum 2

Representative Sampling for Food and Feed Materials: A Critical Need for Food/Feed Safety
pp. 249-251(3)
Authors: Esbensen, Kim H.; Paoletti, Claudia; Thiex, Nancy

Sample Quality Criteria
pp. 265-268(4)
Authors: Ramsey, Charles A.; Wagner, Claas

Theory of Sampling: Four Critical Success Factors Before Analysis
pp. 275-281(7)
Authors: Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim H.

TOS Forum

TOS Forum is a free publication for the sampling community, providing a communications platform for all interested in the theory and practice of representative sampling and blending.

Towards a Unified Sampling Terminology: Clarifying Misperceptions
pp. 259-263(5)
Authors: Thiex, Nancy; Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H.

USDA Pesticide Data Program Procedures


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